Push Factors – the crux of the matter is that if the causes of migration are not ascertained it will be very difficult to deal with issues that come up as a result of migration. The question of why people migrate should be answered and tackled. Though so many people do migrate willingly or voluntarily and so many do unwillingly or involuntarily. Whether willingly or unwillingly the situation is that migration have taken place and its consequences if not properly handled will definitely impact the society positive or negatively..
Therefore, identifying the causes of migration is one step in the right direction in solving migration issues. These causes can also be known as the Push Factors. They are called Push Factors because they are the motivating factors that lead an intending migrant to take a step. The intending migrant takes the step even when the situation in front of him suggests negativity.
Interestingly, majority of these Push Factors are manmade and can only be solved by man if the willpower is there. So, many who migrate from one place to another are not doing so because they intentionally want to. They migrate because somehow their fellowmen have made their movement a necessity. The Push Factors are mainly human factors. These Push Factors can be avoided if human beings can agree to put things in proper prospective. One unique thing to reckon is that people are moving because they have needs to meet.
Push Factors – Needs:
These needs could be internal or external. This is considering the fact that some needs are psychological and if they are not taken care of, the result might not be nice for the one having them. Therefore, migration in so many cases should be seen as a risk venture. This is factual because people take the risk to migrate to another place even when it is obvious that there is danger ahead of them.
They dare the existence of Sahara Desert even though it’s a known fact that the Sahara desert is death trap. They dare the existence of the Mediterranean Sea, not minding the news beaming from media platforms of the danger involved. It implies that the Push Factors motivating them to move must be very intense. The migrants take this great risks in order to make sure that they secure their future. Therefore, saving one’s future is the most paramount thing in the heart of every intending migrant. This is very important because, the future will be nothing to them if their future is not rightly secured.
Below are some of the Push Factors that induces a migrant to take the risks of stepping out to putatively comfort zone.
The Existence of War is of the Push Factors:
Most people who migrate do so because in their homeland or country, war has erupted. Hence the only way to escaped being killed in the war is to leave. In a war situation, the only thing that is precious and valuable is one’s life. War is among the human factors that lead one to leave his or her location to another. It is a human factor because war is manmade. If humans in the warring country didn’t start warring against each other the possibility of people leaving will be very slim.
War is one of the Push Factors that has contributed immensely in causing people to migrate out of their peaceful location. During war, people migrate in their large numbers and the outcome of such is not always pleasant to behold. The refugee camps in many countries are filled with people who are not citizens of their host country. The situation is that in their country war is ongoing. They can only go back to their country of origin if the stakeholders who are human beings would agree to embrace peace. Nobody would like to live in an environment where peace is apparently elusive.
Hunger and Starvation is among the Push Factors:
The existence of hunger and starvation is one of those Push Factors that motivates people to migrate to other places. They migrate from a place of hunger to a place they presume that food is available. The cause of hunger and starvation could be as a result of natural disaster or sometimes manmade.
So many places in the world receive little or no rainfall which would have enabled them participates in agricultural activities. Where there is short of rainfall, agricultural activities will be limited. The implication is that hunger will be prevalent in such land. Though there is no war and there is relative peace in the land inasmuch as hunger and starvation is present people would be forced to leave. People usually migrate to a place where they can find food to eat. Most countries where hunger and starvation exist are not densely populated.
In most cases, such countries cannot be rich because their land is considered as barren. Any land which cannot produce agricultural outputs is not capable of feeding its population. Most migrants who are residence in foreign lands are from countries where hunger and starvation exists. Therefore, the need to leave is very imperative and sometimes they leave in their numbers. Since the greener pasture is on the other side, whatever it takes to go there, they have to sacrifice it.
Population explosion is another Push Factor that can cause migration to take place. Any country that has sudden population explosion without corresponding economic measure and standard to match it will definitely experience migration of its citizens to another country. Definitely, there are greater economic benefits in having large population. But if there are no strong economic structures to sustain it the reverse will become the case. The adverse effect of population explosion is that the working ages of the population will begin to leave their country.
They leave their country to another country they believed that is better. The migration of these working ages will of course tell negatively on the growth of the economy of the country in view. Another side effect of population explosion is that the limited facilities in the country will be overstretched because too many people are chasing fewer facilities available. As a result of this, many who have the opportunity to leave will quickly leave in order to have better life elsewhere where it is available.
Push Factor – Poor Economic Structure:
Many countries in the world are blessed with great money spinning mineral resources in their land. However, most of these countries are among the top countries that their citizens are migrating for greener pasture. It wonders people that such countries with great deposit of mineral resources are experiencing migration problems. The fact is that closer scrutiny has reviewed that these countries lacks well-structured economic system in place. Hence this has prompted their citizens to leave their countries in large numbers. The worse is that the citizens of these countries are also dying in their numbers. This is as they take the risk to cross the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Sea. So, poor economic structure is one of the Push Factors that have led people to leave their country in search of greener pasture in another country.
If the leaders of these countries will have the withal or willpower to put in place the right economic structure for their countries, definitely their citizens will stay put in their land. Evidences have shown that many who leave their country do not do that wholeheartedly. This is because as the saying goes no place is like home. However, for the fact that they could not help the situation they have no option than to leave. The presence of poor economic structure will definitely create room for lack of good job opportunities. The resultant effect of this is that the citizens will look for elsewhere where employment is available. Many countries in the Sub-Saharan region fall into this category and that is why they are experiencing brain drain.
Outbreak of Diseases:
Many people have to flee from countries and places where there is an outbreak of diseases. Sometimes some strange disease do breakout and somehow these diseases defile medical knowledge. For this reason people begin to die in their numbers. Since there is no solution in view, people would not have any other option than to escape to an area where such strange disease is not taking place. In the process of migrating people do discover that their new place of abode is better in all ramifications. The decision will not fall short of anything less than residing in the new place to eke a living there. So outbreak of disease is also one of the Push Factors that leads people to leave their land to another place.
Civilization and Better Environment:
The environment where people live speaks volume as regards to the enhancement of their life and career. People tend to leave their land to another place because their destination has what it takes to enhance their life and career. The level of civilization of a place is one of the Push Factors that lead people to leave their countries. The countries with the latest technological advancement attract people who would like to develop their careers with the latest amenities. It is because of this, people from the Sub-Saharan countries are attracted to move to the so called advance countries. They are advance countries because of the level of civilization and technological advancement they possess.
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